epidemiological and statistical data
importance, in order to build up more reliable risk maps, of having data
divided into sex, recommendations
all the European countries to adopt the following measures are necessary:
standardization of data surveying procedures concerning the
personal and social typology of the women who come to mental health
collection of data divided into sex, and presentation of the
results according to above distinction.
and risk factors
Recommendations apt to integrate the gender point of view in the research
evaluation criteria are considered necessary.
reliable is considered research:
using case-control samples;
including patients of both sexes;
relating the different variables to the sample divided by sex.
It is right
to adopt measures to implement researches apt to offer better results in
the perspective of primary prevention.
the analysis of risk factors in daily life and in the environment;
standardization of the main pre-morbid risk factors in female
mental illness, particularly the risk of: family work overload, stress
elaboration of a survey protocol for the gathering of risk factors
of mental illness;
development of a multicentric European programme on the interaction
of the main psycho-social risk factors.
field, it is necessary to acknowledge the difference between women and men
in pharmacodynamics, and in pharmacokinetics.
Pharmacological research should assume the goals to improve the efficacy
and the safety for women of pharmacological products through:
removal of the obstacles to the inclusion of women in clinical and
data collection trough mix male and female samples;
analysis of data divided by sex.
diagnostic criteria and tools
necessary to modify the diagnostic criteria about the measurement of the
social seriousness of discomfort by including the gender point of view.
More precisely, the evaluation of seriousness of mental disease could be
done on the basis of the perception of impairment and not only on the
basis of objective evaluation in terms of social dysfunction.
The integration of
the gender point of view should be assumed also in the research of new
methodologies and new therapeutical tools.
New and specific therapeutical
tools for women are necessary, focusing on the link between illness and
everyday life, and particularly on the following conditions:
the external as well as family work;
the use of verbal, psychological and physical violence in both
external and family relationships;
the educational training to pattern of dependence.
necessary to predispose sex specific protocols for pharmacological
treatment. Evidences on weight and pharmacodynamic difference between
female and male consumers suggest caution in dosages, lower dosages for
women compared to
Moreover, as long as research is not carried out on both sexes, it is
important to investigate, directly from woman, about the side effects
produced by pharmaceutical products.
should take into account the evidences brought up by research and in
particular of psycho-social risks. It should put the woman to the centre
with her every day life difficulties.
All types of
intervention should take into account two main factors:
many women suffer in daily life of: loneliness, poverty,
unemployment, lack of economical supports , children burden, violence,
and many women suffering of anxiety, depression, don't speak about
their everyday life difficulties, and don't recognize oppression,
violence, fatigue and tiredness.
So it is
necessary to work out protocols apt to:
guide health care providers in singling out the causes undervalued
by women themselves;
give suggestions apt to help women to lighten the burden of
responsibilities that benefits others and to assume styles of behaviour
more suitable to the individual wellbeing (and benefits herself).
homogeneous groups should be set up they should be made up of women
sharing, with different symptoms, common life problems, such as: teen
post-teen ages, married women with children, separated women etc.
psycho-social rehabilitation action should be organized around women's
needs. The experience with women suggests that these groups may be
successfully oriented toward the re-discovery of abilities, skills and
desires for long years set asides and that, instead, can be recovered and
included in a personalized and creative social rehabilitation programme.
programmes must fit women’s needs. Such programmes will keep gender
differences into account in terms of the greater incidence of mental
disease and in terms of educating the 'medical professionals' to identify
psycho-social risk factors in women’s everyday life.
mental health providers must not be supported mainly by the pharmaceutical
industry, for this industry has a concrete interest in pharmacological
treatment, and a law interest in promoting other treatment and
must be focused on acknowledgement of environmental and social-relational
factors. These are factors on which it is possible to intervene before
that the overload of pressures becomes a psychic pathology.
We consider important to organize
a specific training programme on behalf of general practitioners,
psychiatrists, psychologists and other social-health workers, aimed at:
stimulating a medical and psychological approach apt to explain the
connection between illness and everyday life (house work and violent
pressure from the family context).
must give a correct and wide information on the processes involved in
becoming ill and, in the opposite direction, on the protecting factors.
must oriented medical professionals in helping woman to:
combat stress and other pathological problems linked to female role;
change the pattern of subordination and dependence;
know that the absence of reaction to violence is linked to illness
and others psychological troubles;
modify life styles leading to mental illness
It is necessary to direct health services towards:
preventing and therapeutic activities for women;
offering women specific services
thing is all health care providers work with a gender perspective.
of activity or service for these women:
The first type attends to prevent specific situations of distress.
goals are to give correct information on links between daily life and
mental disease and to transfer means to:
fight stress, fatigue e tiredness before they become a pathology;
overcome the pattern of subordination and dependence;
react against family violence and psychological maltreatment.
services could be organized:
listening-centres, the training-stages, the social and psychological
support-groups, ecc. Each initiative would be addressed to women with
who have given up working after maternity,
having difficulties in social relationships, in organizing both housework
and extra-familiar work;
ill-treated, abused, alcoholic women, etc.
Programmes for health education with a view to:
Increasing women ability to communicate and express themselves
Increasing the ability of analyzing their life-style;
their image and their self-esteem;
the risks of symptoms of mental pathologies.
The second type of service is addressed to women who have already begun to
develop an illness and manifest symptoms, and who have already had
There women could be encouraged to understand the way in which their daily
lives have led them to illness. Work method should be different from that
traditionally adopted in psychiatry.
The specialised services should offer practical help and necessary support
by creating a concrete alternative to hospitals and to psychiatric
These services have the following goals:
- to reduce
or to eliminate the use of specific therapeutical means, such as
hospitalization, drugs, or any other strategy that tends to impede or
delay the comprehension of the concrete and tangible causes of their
to consider the symptoms of mental illness as signs of unbearable
to create a new life-style for women's benefits in keeping with
their interests, aptitudes and emotions.
The third type attend to setting up "women's refuges"
spite of hospitalization, it his right to consider as a therapeutical tool
non medical care places for women with psychological problems.
They could go there spontaneously for receiving psychological support in
their daily lives.
So they could make as stop of daily life stressors.